Lake Maggiore situated at the southern edge of the Alps, northwest of the industrialized area around Milan, Italy. It is located at 194 m above sea level and is the second largest (212.5 km2) and the deepest (370 m) of the Italian lakes. Input from the catchment area (6.599 km²) into the lake occurs directly and through three major and eleven smaller rivers and creeks. The Ticino river is the only outflow from Lake Maggiore (Bertoni, 2003). With its 170 km of shore line it is an internationally famous resort in Europe. Besides the recreational uses of its waters (swimming, sport-fishing and yachting), the lake is used as source of water for the population in the area, fisheries and navigation (ILEC, 1997). Lake Maggiore has experienced strong anthropogenic pressure in the last decades suffering from various pollution episodes by inorganic and organic contaminants. However, no much information is yet available on some POPs families such as PCDD/Fs in this ecosystem.
Delivery and accumulation of several POPs families (PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs) as recorded in sediments from the LM was studied as well as the influence of the atmosphere in contaminating this aquatic ecosystem. Our strategy was to obtain surface sediment from areas near riverine inputs and in the depositional basins, settling material in sediment traps at one site and air, aerosol and bulk deposition profiles. Several sampling campaigns were executed and a POPs atmospheric and research station was implemented close to Ispra Bay. In addition, modeling estimations were combined with experimental measurements to get a better understanding of the POPs dynamics in this ecosystem.
Most relevant scientific output:
Castro-Jiménez J. , Eisenreich S.J., Mariani G., Skejo H., Umlauf G (2012). Monitoring atmospheric levels and deposition of dioxin-like pollutants in sub-alpine Northern Italy. Atmospheric Environment 56, 194-202
Sibylle Dueri, Javier Castro-Jiménez and José-Manuel Zaldívar Comenges (2009). Modelling the influence of thermal stratification and complete mixing on the PCB distribution and fluxes in the water column of Lake Maggiore. Chemosphere 75, 1266-1272.
Castro-Jiménez J., Mariani G., Eisenreich S.J., Christoph E.H., Hanke G., Canuti E., Skejo H, and Umlauf G. (2008). Atmospheric input of POPs into Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs profiles and fluxes in the atmosphere and aquatic system. Chemosphere 73, S122-S130.
Mariani G., Canuti E., Castro-Jiménez, J., Christoph E.H., E. Eisenreich S.J., Hanke G., Skejo H., and Umlauf G. (2008). Atmospheric input of POPs into Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): PBDEs concentrations and profile in air, precipitation, settling material and sediments. Chemosphere 73, S114-S121.
Ingrid Vives, Elisabetta Canuti, Javier Castro-Jiménez, Eugen H. Christoph, Steven J. Eisenreich, Georg Hanke, Tania Huber, Giulio Mariani, Anne Mueller, Helle Skejo, Gunther Umlauf, and Jan Wollgast (2007). Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Lake Maggiore (Italy and Switzerland). Journal of Environmental Monitoring ,9, 589-598.
Umlauf G, Canuti E, Castro-Jimenez J, Christoph EH, Eisenreich SJ, Ghiani M, Hanke G, Mariani G, Mueller A1, Tourliti V, Skejo H. (2006). Spatial distribution of PCDD/F in surface sediments of Lake Maggiore (Italy). Organohalogen Compounds 68, 1141-1145.
Communications at conferences / scientific meetings
G. Mariani, E. Canuti, J. Castro-Jiménez, E.H. Christoph, S.J. Eisenreich, G. Hanke, H. Skejo, G. Umlauf and J. Wollgast. Input of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCB and PBDE in Lake Maggiore (Italy). 26th International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs, Oslo, August 2006. Poster
Umlauf G, Canuti E, Castro-Jiménez J, Christoph EH, Eisenreich SJ, Ghiani M, Hanke G, Mariani G, Mueller A1, Tourliti V, Skejo H. Spatial distribution of PCDD/F in surface sediments of Lake Maggiore (Italy). 26th International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs, Oslo, August 2006. Poster
J. Castro-Jiménez, E. Canuti, E.H. Christoph, S.J. Eisenreich, G. Hanke, G. Mariani, H. Skejo, and G. Umlauf. Tracing atmospheric deposition of POPs in aquatic systems: Lake Maggiore case study. First results on PCDD/Fs. Specialty Workshop on: POPs in the European Atmosphere: Concentrations, Deposition and Sources. Stresa 17-19th October, 2005. Oral.
Castro-Jiménez, J, Canuti E, Christoph E.H., Eisenreich S.J., Hanke G., Mariani G. Skejo H, and Umlauf G. Tracing atmospheric deposition of PCDD/Fs in Lake Maggiore (Italy): Preliminary Results on Setting material and sediments. 25th International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs and 20th International Symposium on Polycyclic Aromatics Compounds. Toronto, August 2005. Poster.