Fate of agrochemicals in western Spain (Badajoz)
Different pests causing serious damage to plants and consequently significant yield reductions may affect a large number of crops. The increasing necessity of food production to supply the population makes the use of pesticides as a regular agricultural practice necessary. However, the use of these compounds is not exempt from problems since pesticide residues are potentially toxic for humans and the environment. In the application of pesticides one part of the amount used reaches the target while other part is deposited on the soil. The variable amount deposited in those compartments is subjected to different transformations (degradation, volatilisation, adsorption, leaching, etc.) that will determine the environmental fate of the agrochemicals used.
The aim of this work was, on the one hand, the development of suitable methodologies (based on the concept of low toxic solvent consumption) required for the determination of the selected insecticides in various environmental matrixes (soil, water, air and vegetation). On the other hand, key processes (e.g. adsorption, degradation and volatilization) affecting the environmental distribution of these chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems were studied. The work focused on endocrine disrupting chemicals such as endosulfan (recently included in the Stockholm Convention on POPs), which is widely used in tomato crop in Western Spain (Badajoz), the third largest producer of tomato for preserved food in Europe. Laboratory and field studies were conducted. Results were also used for the implementation of a simple tool for the calculation of the environmental distribution of endosulfan after its application to crops. This work was carried out during my PhD.
Most relevant scientific output:
Tadeo, J.L., Castro, J. and Sánchez-Brunete, C. (2004). Multiresidue determination in soil of pesticides used in tomato crops by sonication assisted extraction in small columns and gas chromatography. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 84, 29-37.
Javier Castro Jiménez (2003). Determinación, persistencia y distribución de insecticidas de uso agrícola en el Medio Ambiente. ISBN: 84-7477-915-4. Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ph.D. Thesis, 176 pp.
Castro, J., Sánchez-Brunete, C., Rodríguez J.A. and J.L. Tadeo (2002). Persistence of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 11, 578-582.
Castro, J., Pérez, R.A., Miguel, E., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and J.L. Tadeo. (2002). Analysis of endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate in air and tomato leaves by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 947, 119-127.
Castro, J., Pérez, R.A., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and J.L. Tadeo (2001). Analysis of pesticides volatilised from plants and soil by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Chromatographia, 53,361-365.
Castro, J., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and J.L. Tadeo (2001). Multiresidue analysis of insecticides in soil by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 918, 371-380.
Javier Castro Jiménez (1999). Adsorción del insecticida organofosforado pirimiphos-methyl en el suelo y determinación cromatográfica de sus residuos. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/Facultad de Ciencias. Tesis de Licenciatura, 80 pp.
Communications at conferences / scientific meetings
Tadeo, J.L., Castro, J. and Sánchez-Brunete, C. Multiresidue determination in soil of tomato pesticides by SAESC extraction and gas chromatography. 2nd European Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment. Corfu, September 2002. Poster
Castro, J., Sánchez-Brunete C. and Tadeo, J.L. Persistence and distribution of endosulfan applied to tomato crops. 2nd European Conference on Pesticides and Related Organic Micropollutants in the Environment. Corfu, September 2002. Poster
Castro, J., Sánchez-Brunete, C., Rodríguez J.A. and J.L. Tadeo. Persistence of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil. 11th International Symposium on Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Life in the Mediterranean Region. Limassol, October 2001. Poster.
Sánchez-Brunete C., Castro J., Pérez R., and Tadeo J. Rapid multiresidue methods for the determination of pesticides in soil and air. SETAC Europe 11th Annual Meeting. Madrid, May 2001. Poster
J. Castro, R.A. Pérez, E. Miguel, C. Sánchez-Brunete and J.L. Tadeo. Analysis of endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate in air and tomato leaves by GC-ECD and GC-MS. XXX Scientific Meeting of the Group of Chromatography and related techniques. Valencia, April 2001. Poster
Castro J., Pérez R.A., Sánchez-Brunete C., Tadeo J.L Analysis of pesticides volatilised from plants and soil by headspace solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS. 23rd International Symposium on Chromatography. London, October 2000. Poster.
García-Valcárcel, Castro, J., Rodríguez, J.A., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and J.L. Tadeo. Persistencia en el suelo del herbicida pendimetalina utilizado en el cultivo del tomate. Actas del Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, León, Noviembre 2001. Poster.
J. Castro, C. Sánchez-Brunete and J.L. Tadeo Multiresidue analysis of insecticides in soil by GC-ECD and confirmation by GC-MS.XXIX Scientific Meeting of the Group of Chromatography and related techniques. Madrid, July 2000. Poster.